Rabu, 23 Juli 2008

Paternal Leukocyte Immunization

In a woman`s body (that has not been pregnant yet), either sperm or fetus will become an antigen in a womb. It can be rejected by the body. As a consequence, a pregnant mother needs to protect the fetus by producing a blocking antibody to detain the reaction.
In a normal condition, a pregnant mother produce blocking antibody to protect the fetus especially on the first quarter (12 weeks). Nevertheless, on a certain situation, blocking antibody production is very low and can result in repetitive abortion, defective fetus, development problems, or even no fetus development which are called blighted ovum.
Blocking antibody production can be triggered by giving white blood cells (leukocyte) from a husband to his wife through immunization. This action is called PLI (Paternal Leukocyte Immunization). This is one option of immunotherapy which is given to a couple expecting a child (infertile).
A woman that has high titers of blocking antibody anti sperm antibody (ASA) develops rejection reaction in her body to her husband?s sperm since the sperm is considered foreign object.
In this case, PLI can protect the body from the anti sperm antibody.


PLI reduce anti sperm antibody (ASA) specifically and selectively since it does not reduce body?s immune system relatively, but it only lower the anti perm antibody (ASA) to the husband?s sperm.

Who needs PLI?

  • Infertile couples, either primary (do not have a child at all), or secondary (have not had a child)
  • Couples with a history of repetitive abortion (twice or more)
  • Couples with a history of undeveloped or blighted ovum

When is it given?

  • Before conception
  • After conception until 12 weeks of pregnancy


  • Husband and wife already undergo immuno-andrology test
  • The husband has undergo pre-PLI
  • Husband with a healthy condition

Paternal Leukocyte Immunization (PLI) Scheme

Patient?s blood cells (husband) --> White blood cells (leukocyte) --> White blood cells (leukocyte) ready to be immunized to the wife

To have children and become a happy family is the dream of every couple but not all couples have the opportunity to have children because of reproduction problem to either wife or husband.

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