Jumat, 18 Juli 2008

The Early Development of Chronic Disease and Child

When people think about the health problems of children and adolescents, they typically think of ear infections, colds, and acne-not heart disease, diabetes or hypertension. Today, however, in many developed countries, children are being diagnosed with obesity and the serious adult disease such as type 2 diabetes that accompany overweight. Childhood obesity is a risk factor of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension in children.

Early development of type 2 diabetes

Obesity is the most risk factor for type 2 diabetes-most of the children diagnosed with it are obese. Most are diagnosed during puberty, but as children become more obese and less active, the trend is shifting to younger children. Type 2 diabetes is most likely to occur in those who are obese and sedentary and have a family history of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the cells become insulin-resistant-that is, the cells become less sensitive to insulin, reducing the amount of glucose entering the cells from the blood. The combination of obesity and insulin resistance produces a cluster symptoms, including high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure, which, in turn, promotes the development of atherosclerosis and the early development of CVD. Other common evident by early adulthood include kidney disease, blindness, and miscarriages.

Prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes depend on weight management, which can be particularly difficult in a youngster’s world of food advertising, video games, and pocket money for candy bars. The activity and dietary suggestions to help defend against heart disease later in this highlight apply to type 2 diabetes as well.

Early development of Heart Disease

Blood Pressure

Pediatrician routinely monitor blood pressure in children and adolescents. High blood pressure may signal an underlying disease or the early onset of hypertension. Hypertension accelerates the development of atherosclerosis. Like atherosclerosis and high blood cholesterol, hypertension may develop in the first decade of life, especially among obese children, and worsen with time. Children can control their hypertension by participating in regular aerobic activity and by losing weight or maintaining their weight as they grow taller. Evidence is needed to clarify whether restricting sodium in children’s and adolescent’s diets lower blood pressure.

Blood Cholesterol

In general, blood cholesterol tends to rise as dietary saturated fat intakes increase. Blood cholesterol also correlates with childhood obesity, especially abdominal obesity. LDL cholesterol rises with obesity, and HDL declines. These relationships are apparent throughout childhood, and their magnitude increases with age. Children who are both overweight and have high blood cholesterol are likely to have parents who develop heart disease early.

Refferences : Whitney E, Rolfes SR. Understanding Nutrition. USA, 2008.

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